GT FAQ Tips for LIB Masters / developers
GT Libs are also heavily tested on low end machines: P200 32meg, win9x for maximum compatibility Tools
for most up to date notes / tips check out the
scrap file
specific topics, rough drafts
References Envelopes
Game Limitations - biggest bug - SCALE of objects Loaded reductions
Lost your sound? How to get it back Hit bubbles /
Screen capturing toolkit object type - fighter to bomber etc
KEY What does *7b or *8 signify? engines / horsepower
AoA relation to G
No other LIB or maker offers such a range of modifications like the pioneering GT Patch, nobody. Glide and climb bank angles
SAM evasive tactics
links / bookmarks hundreds of sites! new textures
fuel weight conversions, use
G vs Stall speeds
Vne max speed
loaded drag coefficient
lite planes tweak bullet weight bug
visual seekers / doppler
SAMs guns
Toolkit guides

"I 'd rather fly, fix ATFG & FA,  help others enjoy it, than build fancy web pages" So please mind the mess and don't expect JAVA, Active X or Sound files. Hi-fi Realism is my priority. 

Designer's Oath:
"Everything is made as accurate as time merits by using verifiable public data." 
Emphasis is on high realism, high quality and 'feel' not on looks and cosmetics.

Galen Thurber is the Libmaster 

I have spent over 1,000 hours on this project up to Fall 2002. I do this because:

'Life is much more interesting than fiction.. and when you cheat and lie you always have to remember too much! Be true.

Free thought, free speech, free world'


Generation 8 simply the best realismyou can find

Better specs producing best realism you can find

Generation 7 still way better realism than any other lib or patch

Pioneering Realistic Mods include:


if a b shows up on a selection screen, this object is not fully tested or modified to this generation specs

G5/6 objects have roughly 60% hit points compared to G7 (meaning G5/6 are weaker)

Generation 6 great realism

Pioneering Realistic Mods include:


if a b shows up on a selection screen, this object is not fully tested or modified to this generation specs

Generation 5/4 good realism

Pioneering Realistic Mods include:

Note: if a b shows up on a selection screen, this object is not fully tested or modified to this generation specs

Generation 2/3/ more accurate envelopes . This is the best you can expect from other lib makers if that... as of 2003
[this manual envelope editing is a challenge ! ]
Please only fly against other series 2 planes for fairness.

Pioneering Realistic Mods include:

Note: if a b shows up on a selection screen, this object is not fully tested or modified to this generation specs

Generation 1  beta zone 'the early years' circa 1997

Note all planes are now included in the main download file, individual links may appear but they do not work.

series 1 mods:


Just for fun [fly into space - if you can] : Sanger Space Plane [fictional] with test mission included in download


Global Tribunal Reference Section

sample of references.. links are old see download bookmarks

Flight Sim FA toolkit tips

Multi playing requires you all to have the same set of lib files or patch .

be sure to have the latest GT patch version

Lost your sound?
Restart game, if that does not work delete your ea.cfg file
Copy your good ea.cfg
If you lose your sound just overwrite ea.cfg with good copy

Don't keep ATFG or FA running before launching from: 

Screen capturing
   control shift-alt-V
   convert RAW to BMP file [associate .raw with this app]
   convert BMP to PNG with IVIEW [PNG is very good for Janes screen caps in web pages - better than GIF or JPG]

Pirated / Burned CD users - you will experience problems if you have stolen either of these games, I won't support you in any way.

You don't have the proper or cool shapes!
Shapes / ICON are really a low priority, my efforts will be placed on accuracy and feel 1st, eye candy 2nd.

Jane's & Toolkit Limitations / nuances:

  1. DuoSoft's Toolkit 1.1 envelope editor uses km/h [.PT]
  2. DuoSoft's Toolkit 1.1 control editor uses mph [not kts as stated]
  3. ATFG uses 660knts @ angels 0 for MACH 1.0 742mph [listen for sonic boom with F9 & you will see]
  4. ATFG / FA stall speeds are generally too low
  5. ATFG / FA sea level speeds are generally too high or unreal
  6. ATFG toolkit uses KMPH for missle speeds
  7. ATFG toolkit demo limits shapes editing so they must be borrowed from other existing ones
  8. ATFG & FA max nose [crash] wheel speed is too high,
  9. ATFG & FA  G limits are too low, planes pull from 3-4 Gs  less than they should [see series 3]
  10. ATFG & FA max nose wheel speed is too high, [see series 3 plans]
  11. ATFG & FA Radar ranges and tracking are unrealistically high , no altimuzth limits ! yikes
  12. ATFG & FA Wheel brakes are nearly 2x as effective as should be [range should be = 44-88 for chutes]
  13. ATFG & FA. Jane's loadout data has not been transferred properly into EA reference / game objects.
  14. Fighters Anthology will only allow 10 or so add on libs at one time (nice touch EA / Jane's)
  15. objects are 10x actual size - use view of -66% [external view are unreliable]

I spotted a discussion again about scale being way off in the game. This has been known for some time, my observations have been that only objects are 4 TIMES actual size [except for non carrier ships]. GT libs have always taken this into consideration for hit points, final tracking, hit bubbles. Altitudes, ranges, speeds are precise.

What does this mean if things are bigger?

Global Tribunal Reference Directory - loads of data collected and submitted to GT. Accuracy is not verified.
ISSUE 1: Sim, Arcade or Game?

ISSUE 2: No cheat zone

ISSUE 3: Game limitations

ISSUE 4: Hobby

More toolkit tips Psycho's LibFAQ page

Envelope editing tips:
starter's rough guide [do not attempt envelope editing unless you can afford many hours and many failures]
high speed envelopes:
fly by wire and pure hydraulics controlled planes differ in their high speed envelopes. FBW will have a 'tight' matching at high speeds between G+1 and +2 & so on of about 10 units, H controlled are about 20-30 on lower Gs and drop to 40-60 at G+7
low speed envelope: 40-70 units between G is common [lower units - like game sometimes has -  is unrealistic]
AOA [angle of attack] make sure A is greater than B - this is where you make a high alpha plane = 20-30

 RCS [info from Kirk 'Vark ']
'Each aircraft has a *.PT file which is the definition of the aircraft's capabilities.
        Open the PT file for the aircraft you wish to edit. The first section of the file is the
        "General" section. Lines 25 and 26 of this section are the two numbers you are
        interested in. Line 25 is the aircraft's Infrared cross section. A large IRCS will
        create an aircraft that is easier to track and attack with IR missiles. Line 26 is the
        Radar cross section. A large RCS will create an aircraft that is easier to track
        and attack with radar missiles. Conversely, smaller numbers will make it more

        difficult to track and attack the aircraft with a particular missile type.'

low speed sink rate polars
% of stall [for swept]
10	for low load gliders
20	low load, ultralights
30	average
40	deltas
50	very high wing load

envelope tip

crash pitch > low AOA + wheel pitch
crashing on takeoff?

rough spacing
10-30 per high
end of envelopes, why? because of control surface limitiations

Hit bubbles:

guns use theoretical pecentages, as distance doubles hit is 25%

GT 22 finally added gun bubbles [late I know]

I use [per pecentile aka 25%]

96%[close], 48%, 24%, 12%, 6%[at max]

Event removal dictates range [which should match range]

Gun convergance should line up if you did the math corectly.

TRICK Gun global hit bubble reduction: since the AIR objects are 2x as big as they should be, select GUN parameter in toolkit to AIRCRAFT hit reduction of at least 50%

weapon hit points - revised calculations 1999/10/22-11/11

use calculator spreadsheet for generation 7+ mods

if distance doubles then damage =
X^0.4 oblique blast area
X^0.33 3d space
X^0.5 2d space

--- vehicle hit points

for generation 6 mods
sam 80 x 1(two digit yr) eg 80 x 1.86 = 148
aaa 90 x 1(yr)
tank 100 x (1yr) x 1.(armour factor) eg=t-90 factor of 5

Want proper climb and deadstick flight? You got it!

Flight Glide and climb angles [degrees]

climb angle formula [re added]

dive = 1 / tan [L/D] climb = INV [tan [L/d]]

wing loading VS lift over drag

use dry wingloading whenever possible WL LoD tba tba

GT libs have been tested to perform correctly for climb values. 714/257 insist these values are wrong and their top secret formula works.

I have devised these from standard Soaring, From the Ground up, ground school books which are not top secret. My numbers match real references. 714 is full of incorrect climb angles, and their dive angles are pathetic.

climb dive chart  dive = 1 / tan [L/D]  climb = INV [tan [L/d]]  l:d=24 = approx
wingloading of 6  LD	WL	CLIMB	DIVE 24	6 12	12 6	24 4	36 3.5	42 3	48 2.7	54
2.4	60 2	72  this is true for all aircraft from gliders to heavies  give helios
climb of 88  see gt-calc.wps [works spreadsheet]

Bank amount [my bank use to be set for when you lose more than 25% of your lift with your wing loading, it gave false visuals ]

Bank angle is mostly cosmetic it does not adversley affect performance, but it can affect AI behaviour

G vs bank angle [assuming standard aircraft values] revised






then subtract
30 for a single tail or bomber

20 single tail delta
10 dual tail

Loaded reductions

GT libs excel in this area that are overlooked by other lib makers. Many cheater libs often will reduce loaded reductions.

-- load reduction formula


(wing loading MTOW / wing loading empty)INV_TANgent = % load reduction

% load x 255 = toolkit value

A-1 spad is very good example, examine the toolkit

Loaded rudder etc. can be played with, some shapes seem to have built in values [eg A-10]

EA OOPS! Rudder specs in FA are backwards, the more power the more rudder

TK rudder tips:

-- load reduction formula

(wing loading MTOW / wing loading empty)INV_TANgent = % load reduction
% load x 255 = game value

or "ballpark"
payload (less fuel) / (Mtow-Mempty) * 255
30,000 Mt
15,000	Me
8,000	fuel

7/15 * 255 = DL = 119

loaded drag = DL * % of payload external and % exposed
elevator = DL / 4
roll = DL * size of wingspan % (big wing higher value)  eg. B-25 100%, A-4 20%

I like to use a ratio e=2:roll=4:rudder=1

Toolkit Rough build SPECS notes:  KEY Weights are in lbs, speeds are in MPH (kmph)

MACH -  speed of sound mph/kmh
@ sea level=  764/1230
@sea level= 742/1195 @ 0c
kmph to mph x 0.62 - kmph to knots x 0.55 - mph to kts x 0.89

litres to gallons US [4.0] 6.6 lbs. per gallon. litres to lbs x 1.65

range to fuel =  fuel[lb] / consumption * 0.15  [approx]

horsepower to thrust  H x 2.8 ~= lb thrust [roughly!] HP reduces as you go higher, so make sure your piston plane envelope is peaked not slanted

Trivia: Fastest at sea level
Aerospace Publishing in 1988
1.  McDonnell Douglas F-15E            Mach 1.23
2.  Grumman F-14A Tomcat               Mach 1.20
    McDonnell Douglas F-15C            Mach 1.20
    McDonnell Douglas F-4K/M           Mach 1.20
    Lockheed F-104 Starfighter         Mach 1.20
    General Dynamics F-111F            Mach 1.20
    MiG-29 Fulcrum                     Mach 1.20
    Sukhoi Su-24 Fencer                Mach 1.20
    Panavia Tornado GR.Mk1             Mach 1.20
    General Dynamics F-16              Mach 1.20
    MiG-23 Flogger B                   Mach 1.20
    Saab JA37 Viggen                   Mach 1.20
    Dassault-Breguet Mirage 2000C      Mach 1.20
    Dassault-Breguet Mirage F1-C       Mach 1.20
3.  McDonnell Douglas F-4E             Mach 1.18
4.  Dassault-Breguet Mirage 5          Mach 1.13
5.  Dassault-Breguet Mirage 4A         Mach 1.10
    Dassault-Breguet Mirage F1         Mach 1.10
    Dassault-Breguet Mirage III        Mach 1.10
    Convair F-106A Delta Dart          Mach 1.10
    General Dynamics FB-111A           Mach 1.10
    SEPECAT Jaguar GR.Mk1              Mach 1.10
    Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-27 Flogger D  Mach 1.10
    Tornado F.Mk2                      Mach 1.10
    Kfir-C2                            Mach 1.10
    English Electric Lightning F.Mk6   Mach 1.10
6.  MiG-21 Fishbed-J                   Mach 1.06
7.  McDonnell Douglas F/A-18 Hornet    Mach 1.00
    Northrop F-20 Tigershark           Mach 1.00
    Saab J35F Draken                   Mach 1.00
8.  Rockwell B-1B                      Mach 0.90


textures mini FAQ

import plane lib into toolkit

goto toolkit project directory make a copy

1. the shape say to

2. copy its skin _a7.pic _7e.pic add to item.dat file [text]



edit shape with hex editor search replace a7.pic with 7e.pic open toolkit edit 7e.pic build and fly is that slick?


www2 yak good for ww2 bombers
bare mig 17
ww2f mig21 bubble
cage f117 but no flaps - ir screen

a7 twin with slanted gun=a7
ast solo
b2 cabin left side
ef2 round with solo tv sim to av8
f104 twin long arc with pent hud sim to tornado
f14 roundish view hole
f16 solo bread loaf
f18 arch with solo pentagon
f22 solo 'long horns'
f29 1/2 circle with solo square
f31 solo pent
f4 twin w horiz mounts for square
f8 spade hole with vert mounted square panther?
mig17 oval hole w square
mig21 solo horseshoe with cleaver
su33 twin full verticals with glass, with gas hose on left
yak141 wide arc viewer, blue beware f22 hud is bogus and creates a hook not bay unclick it on builds

Color Matching

Get yourself a program like eyedropper, use it to match colors in good photos to the toolkit palette color. Note: your must darker your palette choice by 4 positions

Testor Paints Color Charts

Russia WW2


Russia modern

Gulf War

WW2 German


General, NATO

Realistic Replacements
If you think you are hot stuff in Janes Sims ... think again. .. try these mean real life missles! Some serious surprises!
These items will replace existing ones only if your install date is older than these libs

Janes / EA sim has many weapon mistakes, most noticeably is the handicapped 'enemy' weapons & loadouts
Toolkit use km/h  as the measure not knots.
Test this yourself compare the Janes 87/88 data specs [km/h] with toolkit numbers, you'll see them match

Realism & fairness are the goals here. Enough of handicapped enemies from sim makers!

If you fly with these weapons only use weapons belonging to your plane's country - no swapping!


Replacement Textures & Roundels

included in main lib file now..

F-104G  replaces F-104 - ground attack version [my first texture] - tiger meet tail, Europe

Canada roundel OR  Canada low-vis roundel - replaces #6 Belgium [tested & works only with ATFG]

CF18D 410 Cougar Squad Texture [game capture] - replaces FA18D [includes false canopy and tail graphic]
this has been included in the AA series LIB -May 98

weapon speed secret formula:
Jane's uses km/h as the measure for all weapons
object removal range[nm]  x 26000 / velocity [km/h] = event timing

pre formated section

drag coefficient drag note : use 180-220 [GT default] as drag coeficient [not the too dirty 256 default value] rough most jets 40 + 40 per fan / small 60 per variable 40 per tail gliders up to 60

AoA relation to G

Su-35 [clean] can pull 15G in high AoA at 1020 kmh

theortical formula devised by using the 'Convertion' calculator for G forces vs speed

AoA per second

G= Vkmh / (AoA/90) * 0.0283

AoA= (G / Vkmh) x 3180

eg. Su27 [clean] at 1000kmh G=15 AoA= G =28 if 90degrees / sec at 1000kmh


loaded drag = mtow/dry * 255 * %of payload that is external

AoA values
	corner speed in km/h  value is AoA  [approx] use highest value
+G	g-drag 	A@900	2x alpha
15	220	59	118
14	200	50	100
13	170	46	98
12	165	42	84
11	150	39	78
10	140	35	70
9	124	31	62
8	116	28	56
7	96	24	48

in practice if an aircraft is high alpha it will 'over pull G's' by 25% scale
and its normal AOA can 2x or 4x.

12 - 15	su37
11 - 14
10 - 13	mirage 2000
9 - 11	f15?
8 - 10	kfir7 ?
7 - 9	f18

A is for a typical fighter with med speed turn radius point at 450kt]
B is for a high alpha, flight control system relaxed

other load factors:
don't use set values for loaded control surfaces they must be visually
tested and tweaked [trades off between roll rate -see movement]

G Vs Stall G vs speed Vs - stall increase as G increases 1 1 2 1.41 3 1.73 4 2 5 2.24 6 2.45 7 2.64 8 2.83 9 3 10 3.16 11 3.32 12 3.46 13 3.6 14 3.74 15 3.87
fuel ---- litres to gallons US [4.0] 6.6 lbs. per gallon. litres to lbs x 1.65 range to fuel = fuel[lb] / consumption * 0.15 [approx] fuel expend REG = thrust / 10000 AB = reg x 6-12 older the plane higher the AB multiplier I do have another calculation around here somewhere :-)
vne -- max speed - have 0G env go beyond Vne [say by 40kmph], BUT limit speed by controls value = Vne[kts] x 1.15 this gives about 20 seconds past Vne
visual seekers all asp 80 type ww1 low-wing-ww2 high wing low wing-jet low-wing-tv-2seat range 3 3 3 3 7 t-heading 320 320 320 340 20 t-pitch 40 60 90 70 20 object 180 240 300 340 400 seekers cone 20 strike 15 std 10 old vertical yr/2 look down MAY loss all A2G targetting all aspect 30-90 [older are more] rough formula 2050-year doppler affects values below 0 nc 1 loss AG, ships ok 2 loss ships, AG some loss 3 loss ships & loss AG above 0 nc 1 ? 2 ? 3 little change 4 A2A lock is slower
lite planes fix /tweak for lite planes (under 6000 lbs) x them by 10 [this will cause fuel tanks problems] solved by adding required loads of 10 tanks. Be sure to make the load factors from the real values bullet weight bug causes MTOW over bullet weight will over MTOW [solve by reducing empty weight by 80% bullet count] bulllets by default are one pound each
----- plane type Thanks to whomever wrote this out ! Ever wanted to give a plane the ability to provide AWACS data-links, or JSTARS ground data-link, or even both? Scroll down until you find the following section: ;---------------- END OF NPC_TYPE ---------------- ;---------------- START OF PLANE_TYPE ---------------- dword $2005 ; this is the line you are looking for ptr env word -2 word 3 The line "dword $2005" is the one that determines what kind of data-link the plane can provide. As you might guess, $2005 provides AWACS air-radar data only. Here's the settings you can try: $2005 - AWACS (like the E-2 or E-3) $4004 - JSTARS (like the E-6) $6005 - JTIDS (both AWACS & JSTARS from one plane!) $6096 - JTIDS / Vertical Thrust Vectoring (for the F-22) so change the line to $6005 in this case, and save the file. Return to the toolkit, build the lib, and you're set.

Skins Funny, I was just doing that this weekend! The thing you need to bear in mind is that your pictures may only be 128 colours. The game uses the other 128 for things like the pointer, buttons, menus, etc. once you have reduced your image to 128 colours, edit the palette so that the colours you are using are the BOTTOM 128 (ie. leave 0-127 free). Now open up an existing chooseac type screnn (I'm assuming you have the toolkit!), and put that image's top 128 colours into your top 128 colours. So you you should have the original chooseac's top (0-127) colours in your palette, and your pictures colours in the bottom (128-255). Once you have this, you can choose to put in the munebar, button box etc. that the originals bring, or leave them out (I personally find it ugly when they are left out, but some people seem to like it that way). To actually add it to your lib, simply import it into the toolkit as an "other" image, and makesure that the "use image palette" option (or words to that effect) is on. Dave "Sick Puppy" Nunez

todo? todo list for R 46 fix helios check IR radar signatures for props su37 su39 Rafs Viggen Gen 8 Aquila 203 french carrier - from vampire 58? j8ii with ge404 no ab test out flyable subs? jag skins flyable hovercraft jag m loadout = done j22m was iar93a+ = done gen 8 envelopes flankers return high aoa 4x and generation 8 envelopes? missles burn time reduction to 2.4-3s for IR, 6-60 for AR how make file list for uninstall open exploder view small icon, select all, copy open text document, paste in replace directory with DEL turn into gt-uninstall.bat

pre ends


Open Source. Conditions apply

Galen Thurber